Comandă teza de licență la limbi străine, inclusiv la facultățile de lingvistică și traduceri pentru limba engleză și franceză. Teze de an și master la comandă

Teza de licenta - Linguistic Analysis of On-line Advertising in English - ID:04073 - Volum 58 pagini

Introduction .........3

1. Theoretical part ............................................4

1.1. Defining the Concept of Advertising .............4
1.2. Advertising objectives ................................5
1.3. Advertising as communication .....................6
1.3.1 Communication in advertisements .............6
1.3.2 Characteristics of Advertising language and its Functions .........8
1.4. Attention-seeking Devices in Advertising ......9
1.4.1. Phonological level ....................................10
1.4.3. Lexical and Orthographical l level ..............11
1.4.2. Morphological and Syntactic level ...............13
1.4.4. Semantic level ..........................................15

2. Practical part .................................................19
2.1 Collecting the data ............................................19
2.2 The Overall Evaluation ......................................19
2.3 Phonological level .............................................20
2.4 Lexical and Orthographical level .........................20
2.5 Syntactic and Morphological level .......................22
2.6 Semantic level ..................................................24
2.7 Observation .....................................................26

Conclusion ............................................................29
Bibliography ..........................................................30
Appendix ...............................................................40

Teza de licenta - A pragmatic analysis of the use of english language in selected billboard adverts in Nigeria - ID:04072 - Volum 56 pagini

CHAPTER ONE. GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.2. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.5. CONCLUSION


CHAPTER TWO. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 A HISTORY OF ADVERTISING IN NIGERIA
2.2 ADVERTISING AND THE PRAGMATIC THEORY OF TRUTH
2.3. THE COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE OF GRICE AND THE ADVERTISING LANGUAGE
2.4. IMPLICATURES IN THE ADVERTISING LANGUAGE
2.5 THE COMMUNICATIVE FORM OF THE ADVERTISING LANGUAGE

CHAPTER THREE. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 THEORY: PRAGMATICS
3.2 METHODOLOGY
3.2.1 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.2.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR. DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 DATA PRESENTATION
4.3 DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION

5.1 FINDINGS
5.2 CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Teza de licenta - Linguistic analysis of slogans used in food industry - ID:04071 - Volum 78 pagini

Introduction

CHAPTER I. THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE LANGUAGE OF ADVERTISING

1.1. Defining the concept of advertising and advertising slogans
1.2. Types of advertisements by purpose
1.3. Syntactic, structural and grammatical features of slogans
1.3.1. Imperative clauses
1.3.2. Interrogative clauses
1.3.3. Exclamative clauses
1.3.4. Incomplete clauses
1.3.5. Noun phrases
1.3.6. Verbal groups
1.3.7. Personal pronouns
1.3.8. Cohesion
1.4. Linguistic features of slogans and its functions

CHAPTER II. RESEARCH PART
2.1. The aims of research
2.2. Hypotheses and questions of the research
2.3. Research methods and process of research
2.4. Results of the research

Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

Teza de licenta - Teaching writing techniques - ID:04069 - Volum 58 pagini

Introduction

Chapter 1. Teaching writing as a type of communication

Part 1. Skill building and the process approach to writing
Part 2. Main techniques for getting started writing process
Part 3. Teaching writing techniques

Chapter 2. Teaching creative writing techniques
Part 1. The methods of developing creative writing skills
Part 2. Activities for teaching creative writing techniques

Conclusion
The list of used literature

Teza de an - Teaching speaking through discussion - ID:04068 - Volum 38 pagini

INTRODUCTION

1. CHAPTER 1. FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS IN TEACHING WRITING ESSAYS

1.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF WRITING ESSAYS
1.2 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING WRITING ESSAYS: WRITING TECHNIQUES AND STAGES
1.3.ORGANIZATION OF THE ESSAYS. ESSAY STRUCTURE

2. CHAPTER 2
2.1 TYPES OF ESSAYS. ESSAY SAMPLES
2.2 PUNCTUATION. WORD CHOICE
2.3 LINKING WORDS AND PHRASES
2.4 PLAGIARISM

CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Teza de licenta - Le rőle et les fonctions de l’emprunt dans le langage sportif - ID:04067 - Volum 88 pagini

Résumé en anglais
Résumé en roumain
Introduction

1. LE PHẺNOMỀNE DE L’EMPRUNT

1.1 L’emprunt dans la vision des linguistes contemporains
1.2 La classification des emprunts
1.3 Les causes du phénomène de l’emprunts
1.4 Les emprunts aux différentes langues
1.5 Le rôle de l’emprunt dans l’enrichissement du vocabulaire
1.6 L’emprunt comme technique de traduction
1.7 Le calque - un emprunt par traduction
Conclusions

2. Le rőle et les fonctions de l’emprunt dans le langage sportif
2.1 La description du corpus
2.2 Les particularités du langage sportif
2.3 La place de l’emprunt dans le langage sportif
2.4 Le phénomène de l’emprunt dans le langage sportif en français et en roumain
Conclusions

Conclusions générales.........................................................66
Bibliographie......................................................................70
Annexe I Fiches terminologiques..........................................74
Annexe II Glossaire de termes............................................83
Annexe III Corpus de textes...............................................88

Teza de an - La compétence d'apprendre à apprendre et son importance dans le développement de la métacognition - ID:04066 - Volum 38 pagini

Introduction…………3

CHAPITRE I : L’approche par compétences dans l’enseignement…………5

1.1. La notion de compétence. L’origine de l’approche par compétences………………5
1.2. L’étude de la classification des compétences pédagogiques ……………………………9
1.3. La compétence d'apprendre à apprendre…………………………………………………….13

CHAPITRE II : L’étude de la compétence d'apprendre à apprendre dans le développement de la métacognition……17
2.1 Qu’est-ce que la métacognition ?.........................................................17
2.2 La métacognition et l’éducation cognitive…………………………………………………….21
2.3 L’importance de la compétence d'apprendre à apprendre dans le développement de la métacognition………24

Conclusions………………………………………………………………32
Bibliographie……………………………………………………………33
Annexes……………………………………………………………………35


Teza de licenta - Moyens linguistiques d'expression de connotations sociales - ID:04065 - Volum 70 pagini

Résumé en anglais ..........................................................3
Résumé en roumain ........................................................4
Introduction....................................................................5

CHAPITRE 1. CONSTRUIRE LE SENS – DU SIGNE AU DISCOURS…………...7

1.1. Les mots et leur sens……………………………………………………….7
1.2. La diversité des approches du sens………………………………………13
1.2.1 Les théories du signe (Saussure, Peirce)…………………………………15
1.2.2 Une approche du sens, de la signification et de la signifiance……19
1.3. La connotation vs. la dénotation en linguistique..................22
Conclusions............................................................................30

CHAPITRE 2. LES MOYENS LINGUISTIQUES D’EXPRESSION DES CONNOTATIONS SOCIALES………31
2.1. Description du corpus de recherche……………………………………………...31
2.2. Les moyens de désambiguïsation des connotations…………………………..…34
2.2.1. Le contexte – lieu de matérialisation du sens……………………………………41
2.3. Les fonctions et les valeurs sémantiques………………………………………...45

Conclusion................................................................................47
Conclusions générales................................................................48
Bibliographie.............................................................................50
Annexe 1. Glossaire terminologique……………………………………………………55
Annexe 2. Corpus…………………………………………………………………….…..59

Teza de licenta - Translation of Advertisements - ID:04064 - Volum 64 pagini

1 Introduction 1

Chapter I

2 History of Advertising 4
3 Ways of Advertising 7
4 Advertising Techniques 8
5 Techniques of Persuasion 11
6 The Language of Advertising Claims 12

Chapter II Some Recent Theories On Translation 21
Types of Translation 24
Techniques and Methods of Translation 28
Demands to a Translator 30
Translating Consumer-Oriented Texts 31

Chapter III. Samples of Advertisements 34
a) Advertisements Proper 34
b) Slogans 42
Translation Analysis 50
a) Translation Analysis of Advertising Claims 50
b) Translation Analysis of Advertisements 51
c) Translation Analysis of Slogans 62

Conclusion
Bibliography 65


Teza de licenta - Lexical and grammatical peculiarities of Advertisements in English and Romanian - ID:04063 - Volum 87 pagini

Introduction

CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL APPROACH OF TRANSLATION

1.1. Development of translation notion in linguistics
1.2. Equivalence in translation
1.3. Types of translation
1.4. General overview of advertising
1.5. Types of advertisements by purpose
1.6. Advertising ways and techniques

CHAPTER II. USAGE OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL PECULIARITIES IN TRANSLATION OF ADVERTISEMENTS IN ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN
2.1. English peculiarities in advertisements
2.2. Structural analysis of advertisements
2.3. Morphological analysis
2.4. The Outcome of Morphological Analysis
2.5. Lexical and grammatical peculiarities in translation advertisements into Romanian

Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

Teza de licenta - Teaching Pronunciation to Young Learners - ID:04062 - Volum 46 pagini

1. INTRODUCTION ................................................6

2. THEORETICAL PART ..........................................8

2.1 YOUNG LEARNERS ...........................................8
2.1.1 Characteristics of young learners ...................8
2.1.1.1 Children under seven years old ...................9
2.1.1.2 Children of seven to twelve years old .......... 9
2.1.2 Cognitive development .................................10
2.2 TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNERS..........11
2.2.1 Teaching English through English ....................11
2.2.2 Choosing the right activity .............................12
2.2.2.1 Variety of activity ......................................12
2.2.2.2 Variety of organisation ...............................13
2.2.2.3 Routines ..................................................13
2.2.3 Students’ involvement .................................14
2.3 TEACHING PRONUNCIATION ..................................................... 16
2.3.1 When to start teaching pronunciation? ........................................ 16
2.3.2 Why teach pronunciation? ............................................................ 17
2.3.3 Factors affecting pronunciation learning .................................... 17
2.3.3.1 The age factor ........................................................................... 17
2.3.3.2 Exposure ................................................................................... 18
2.3.3.3 Mother tongue .......................................................................... 18
2.3.4 Techniques and activities for teaching pronunciation ................. 19
2.3.4.1 Balance of productive and receptive skills ............................... 19
2.3.4.2 Listening activities .................................................................... 20
2.3.4.3 Drilling ..................................................................................... 20
2.3.4.4 Minimal pairs activities ............................................................ 21
2.3.4.5 Chants, rhymes and songs ........................................................ 21
2.3.4.6 Further suggestions for pronunciation teaching ....................... 22

3. PRACTICAL PART .............................................................................. 23
3.1 TOPIC 1: /æ/ vs. /ʌ/ ............................................................................. 25
3.1.1 Lesson plan ................................................................................... 25
3.1.2 Comments and evaluation ............................................................ 26
3.2 TOPIC 2: /v/ vs. /w/ ............................................................................. 27
3.2.1 Lesson plan ................................................................................... 27
3.2.2 Comments and evaluation ............................................................ 28
3.3 TOPIC 3: /θ/ vs. /ð/ ............................................................................. 29
3.3.1 Lesson plan ................................................................................... 29
3.3.2 Comments and evaluation ............................................................ 30
3.4 TOPIC 4: WORD STRESS ................................................................ 31
3.4.1 Lesson plan ................................................................................... 31
3.4.2 Comments and evaluation ............................................................ 32
3.5 TOPIC 5: RHYTHM .......................................................................... 33
3.5.1 Lesson plan ................................................................................... 33
3.5.2 Comments and evaluation ............................................................ 34

4. CONCLUSION ....................................................................................... 35

Works Cited ...................................................................................................... 36
Appendixes ........................................................................................................ 38

Teza de licenta - Teaching English pronunciation to secondary school students with focus on “th” consonants - iD:04061 - Volum 70 pagini

1 Introduction ...................................................................7

2 Theoretical Part .............................................................9

2.1 Features of Pronunciation .............................................9
2.1.1 The most problematic sounds for Czech learners...........11
2.2 Why to teach pronunciation ...........................................14
2.2.1 Intelligibility ...............................................................16
2.2.2 Model .......................................................................17
2.3 Teaching and learning pronunciation................................17
2.3.1 Pronunciation teaching.................................................18
2.3.2 Teacher’s role ...........................................................20
2.3.3 Student’s role............................................................21
2.4 Factors influencing pronunciation learning .......................22
2.4.1 Age factor..................................................................22
2.4.2 The role of the mother tongue ....................................24
2.4.3 Motivation .................................................................25
2.4.3 Learner’s attitude and sense of identity ........................26
2.5 Consonants...................................................................27
2.5.1 Production of voiced and unvoiced consonants “th” ........30
2.6 Summary of the theoretical part.....................................31

3 Practical Part ..................................................................33
3.1 Introduction to the Practical Part ......................................33
3.2 Activities focused on pronunciation of “th” sounds ..............35
3.2.1 Introducing TH fricative consonants ................................35
3.2.2 Minimal pairs ................................................................38
3.2.3 Tongue twisters ............................................................41
3.2.4 Oral reading..................................................................43
3.3 Introduction of the students..............................................45
3.4 Recordings .....................................................................47
3.4.1 Assessing recordings.......................................................48
4.4.2 First recording ..............................................................48
3.4.3 Second recording..........................................................51
3.4.3 Third recording.............................................................55
3.4.5 Summary of the recordings...........................................60

4 Conclusion ........................................................................62

5 References.......................................................................64

6 Appendix..........................................................................67

6.1 Appendix 1: reading text.................................................67
6.2 Appendix 2: TH fricative consonatns.................................68
6.3 Appendix 3: table of consonatnts ....................................69

Teza de licenta - Teaching pronunciation in the secondary school - ID:04060 - Volum 53 pagini

Introduction page 5

Importance of teaching pronunciation in secondary school page 7
Goals of pronunciation teaching page 9
Factors that affect pronunciation learning page 12
Pronunciation teaching page 15
Teacher’s and Student’s role page 19
Description of the sound system of English page 21
Teaching techniques page 38
Assessment page 44
Information and communication technology page 46
Pronunciation teaching materials in the future page 50

Conclusion page 51
Bibliography page 52

Teza de licenta - Effective presentation techniques in teaching pronunciation in the 5th grade - ID:04059 - Volum 49 pagini

Introduction

CHAPTER I. Theoretical approach related to pronunciation in primary school

1.1. Background of the sound system of English
1.2. Main goals of teaching pronunciation
1.3. Factors that affect learning pronunciation
1.4. Importance of teaching pronunciation in secondary school
1.5. Spelling and pronunciation
1.6. Technique for teaching pronunciation

CHAPTER II. Presentation techniques in teaching pronunciation in the 5th grade
2.1. Presentation
2.2. Practice
2.3. Testing

CHAPTER III. Experimental analysis of teaching pronunciation

Conclusion
Bibliography
Appendix

Teza de masterat - Teaching Pronunciation at Secondary Level - ID:04058 - Volum 124 pagini

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................9
I. THEORY ...............................................................................10

1 THE NECESSITY OF TEACHING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION ON THE INTERNATIONAL GROUND...........11

1.1 English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) ...........................................13
1.1.1 English as a Lingua Franca Development ............................15
1.2 What Kind of English to Teach? .............................................16
1.2.1 Standard English and Received Pronunciation......................17
1.2.2 Lingua Franca Model.........................................................19
1.2.3 Teaching Production and Teaching Comprehension...............23
1.2.4 An Overview of Teaching Models .......................................24
1.3 Why to Teach Pronunciation? ...............................................25

2 FACTORS INFLUENCING PRONUNCIATION................................27
3 INCLUDING PRONUNCIATION INTO THE CLASSROOM....................29
3.1 When to Teach Pronunciation ...................................................29
3.2 What Pronunciation Aspects to Teach.........................................30
3.2.1 Phonemic Chart ...................................................................30
3.2.2 Examples of Pronunciation Areas ..........................................30
3.3 Pronunciation Problems of Czech Speakers ...............................39
3.3.1 Vowel Sounds.......................................................................39
3.3.2 Consonant sounds ................................................................39
3.3.3 Stress and Intonation ...........................................................40

II. ANALYSIS ................................................................................41
4 INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYTICAL PART ..................................42

5 FREQUENCY OF PRONUNCIATION ACTIVITIES IN ENGLISH COURSE BOOKS .....43

5.1 Pronunciation Activities in the Course Book New English File ...........................43
5.1.1 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Vowel Sounds................45
5.1.2 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Diphthong Sounds .........46
5.1.3 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Consonant Sounds .........47
5.1.4 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Word Stress and Sentence Stress ......49
5.1.5 Comparison of the Most Frequently Practised Phonetic Features..................50
5.1.6 Types of Pronunciation Tasks ................................................................51
5.2 Pronunciation Activities in the Course Book New Headway................................57
5.2.1 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Vowel Sounds................58
5.2.2 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Diphthong Sounds .........60
5.2.3 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Practising Consonant sounds..........61
5.2.4 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Word Stress and Sentence Stress ......63
5.2.5 Comparison of the Most Frequently Practised Phonetic Features..................64
5.2.6 Types of Pronunciation Tasks ........................................................................65
5.3 Pronunciation Activities in the Course Book Maturita Solutions .........................67
5.3.1 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Vowels, Diphthongs and Consonants .....68
5.3.2 Number of Pronunciation Activities for Word Stress and Sentence Stress .......68
5.3.3 Comparison of the Most Frequently Practised Phonetic Features..................69
5.3.4 Types of Pronunciation Tasks ........................................................................70
5.4 Comparison of Pronunciation Activities in the Three Course Books ...................71
5.4.1 Differences in Number of Pronunciation Sections .........................................71
5.4.2 Differences in Number of Pronunciation Activities .......................................71
5.4.3 Differences in Number of Pronunciation Tasks .............................................72

6 RESULTS OF PRACTISING PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES FROM NEW ENGLISH FILE PRE-INTERMEDIATE SB AND WB.......74
6.1 Analysis of Recordings..........................................................................................74
6.1.1 Speaker 1 Recording 1....................................................................................75
6.1.2 Speaker 2 Recording 1....................................................................................76

7 COMPLETION OF PRONUNCIATION ACTIVITIES FROM NEW ENGLISH FILE PRE-INTERMEDIATE SB AND WB......79
7.1 Comparison of Teaching Methods for Vowel Sounds ..........................................80
7.1.1 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /i:/, /u:/, /i/ and /u/ ..............81
7.1.2 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /ə/ and /Ǭ:/ ..........................84
7.1.3 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /Ǥ:/ and /Ǣ/..........................85
7.1.4 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /e/ and /æ/...........................87
7.1.5 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /Ȝ/ and /ǡ:/..........................88
7.2 Comparison of Teaching Methods for Diphthong Sounds ....................................89
7.3 Comparison of Teaching Methods for Consonant Sounds ....................................91
7.3.1 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /s/, /z/, /ȓ/, /ʒ/, /f/ and /v/........91
7.3.2 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /θ/ and /ð/ sounds ...............93
7.3.3 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /p/, /b/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /ȷ/, /ȴ/......94
7.3.4 Comparison of the Two Methods for Practising /w/, /j/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /h/, /l/, /r/.....96
7.4 Comparison of the Two Methods for Word and Sentence Stress.......................98
7.5 Comparison of the Two Methods Summary....................................................99

8 RESULTS OF PRACTISING PRONUNCIATION EXERCISES ACCORDING TO THE INTRODUCTION TO TEACHING PRONUNCIATION WORKSHOP .......101
8.1 Speaker 1 Recording 2.........................................................................101
8.2 Speaker 2 Recording 2.........................................................................103
8.3 Summary of the Analysis .....................................................................105
8.4 Analysis of the Questionnaires ..............................................................105
8.5 Student’s Exposure to English Language.................................................106
8.6 Comparison of the Methods from Students’ Point of View.........................109

9 SUMMARY OF THE ANALYTICAL PART .......................................................110

CONCLUSION ...........................................................................................111
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................................113
APPENDICES.............................................................................................119





Teza de masterat - Teaching English Pronunciation to Young Learners - Focus on Accuracy - ID:04057 - Volum 121 pagini

1. INTRODUCTION -1-

2. PRONUNCIATION -2-

2.1 What kind of pronunciation to teach and goals of pronunciation -3-
2.2 Aspects and features of pronunciation -4-
2.2.1 Other aspects of connected speech -8-
2.3 Factors affecting pronunciation learning -9-

3. YOUNG LEARNERS -12-
3.1 Who the young learners are and how they develop -12-
3.1.1 Cognitive development of young learners -13-
3.1.2 Personal and social development of young learners -15-
3.1.3 Psychomotor development of young learners -16-
3.2 Language acquisition -18-
3.3 Second language acquisition -19-

4. TEACHING PRONUNCIATION -22-
4.1 How to teach pronunciation -24-
4.2 How to teach and develop pronunciation -25-
4.3 The role of the teachers and learners in teaching and learning pronunciation -26-
4.4 Pronunciation techniques and activities -29-
4.4.1 Activities and techniques based on recognition -29-
4.4.2 Activities based on production -31-
4.5 The use of games for teaching pronunciation to young learners -36-

5. MISTAKES AND CORRECTION -38-
5.1 Learners’ mistakes in spoken English -38-
5.1.2 Czech learners and their errors in English pronunciation -40-
5.2 Feedback and correction during accuracy work -41-

6. CONCLUSION OF THE THEORETICAL PART -42-

7. RESEARCH -43-

7.1 Introduction -43-

8. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY -43-

8.1 The research aim and questions -44
8.2 The research plan -45-
8.3 Background information -46-
8.4 Research methods -47-
8.4.1 Observations -47-
8.4.2 Interviews -48-

9. RESEARCH RESULTS OF COLLECTED DATA -49-
9.1 The use of pronunciation activities for young learners -49-
9.1.1 The use of pronunciation activities in the third grade -49-
9.1.2 The use of pronunciation activities in the fourth grade -52-
9.1.3 The use of pronunciation activities in the fifth grade -55-
9.1.4 The summary of observations -57-
9.2 Young learners’ pronunciation mistakes and correction techniques -59-
9.3 Results of the interview with teachers -64-
9.4 Data interpretation and conclusion of the practical part -68-

10. CONCLUSION -72-

11. RESUMÉ -74-

12. BIBLIOGRAPHY -80-

13. LIST OF APPENDICES -84-

Teza de licenta - Period in the evolution of the sounds system in English language - ID:04056 - Volum 119 pagini

Intoduction
1. Evolution of the Sound System

2. The Evolution of English

2.1. Vowels and current English
2.2. Stress
2.3. Unstressed Vowels

3. Kinds of Sound Change
3.1. Assimilation: Sounds Become Less Alike
3.2. Dissimilation: Sounds Become Less Alike
3.3. Elision: Sounds are Omitted
3.4. Metathesis: Sounds are Reordered

4. Causes of sound change

5. The Phoneme

6. Differing transcriptions

7. Early modern English pronunciation and spelling

7.1. Pronunciation change and the Great Vowel Shift
7.2. Spelling: general principles
7.3. Spelling: particular words
7.4. The stabilization of spelling

8. Preliminary Remarks
8.1. Word stress in Middle English and Early New English
8.2. Diversity of pronouns
8.3. Ambiguity of Modern English in different dialects
8.4. Spelling and pronunciation in the South
8.5. South – Western dialects
8.6. Nothern dialects

9. Vowel changes in Middle English and Early New English

10. Quantitative vowel changrs in Early Middle English

11. The Great Vowel Shift
11.1. Some Interpretation of the Great Vowel Shift
11.2. Changes of Short Vowels in Early New English
11.3. Growth of Long Monophthongs and Diphthongs in Early New English due to Vocalisation of Consonants

12. The Early Modern English

13. The Late Modern English


Conclusion
The list of using literature

Teza de an - La réalité étrange et ironique dans les contes philosophiques de Voltaire - ID:04055 - Volum 37 pagini

Introduction………14

Chapitre I Le conte philosophique et ses grandes caractéristiques………5

1.1 Le conte philosophique - un genre composite……………5
1.2 Le conte philosophique - un genre parodique……………9
1.3 Le conte philosophique - un genre satirique………………11
1.4 Le conte philosophique - un genre argumentatif…………14

Chapitre II La réalité étrange et ironique dans les contes philosophiques de Voltaire……18
2.1 Quelques donnés biographiques sur la vie et la création de Voltaire………18
2.2 Analysé comparée des contes philosophiques de Voltaire……20
2.3 Étude détaillée de Candide……………………………………………………….22
2.3.1 Candide - un conte qui tient du roman…………………………………………22
2.3.2 Les procédés d’écritures, une argumentation au service de la satire………25
2.3.3 La critique voltairienne de la société……………………………………27

Conclusions………………30
Bibliographie……………31
Annexe………………………33

Teza de an - La dimension paratextuelle dans le texte dramatique et sa traduction - ID:04054 - Volum 42 pagini

Introduction………3

Chapitre I : Le paratexte dans les études linguistiques modernes………………4

1.1. Le texte et son paratexte……………………...…………………………….4
1.2. Les types de paratextes……………………..……………………………...7
1.3. Les particularités du paratexte……………………..……………………..11
1.3.1. Les traits formels……………………...………………………………...11
1.3.2. Les traits sémantiques………………...………………………………...13
1.3.3. Les traits fonctionnels……………...………………………………...…14

Chapitre II : Le cadre théorique dans le texte dramatique……...21
2.1. Modes d’écritures dramatiques…………...………………………………21
2.2. Les enjeux scéniques……………...………………………………………24

Chapitre III : Les défis traductologiques dans les œuvres dramatiques...……..25
3.1. La description du corpus………...………………………………………..25
3.2. Les difficultés de traduction du paratexte……...……………….27

Conclusions……………………………………………………………37
Bibliographie……………………………………………………………...38
Annexes………………………………………………………………………40